The Strategy of Islamic Tourism Development in West Java
(Study at Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga)
By: Abdurrahman MBP
Sharia Tourism is a term used by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, Republic of Indonesia, to the tour program based on the values of the Islamic sharia. The program was launched in December 2012 as the implementation of Law no. 10 of 2009 concerning about tourism, that tourism was organized by upholding the principle of religious norms and cultural values of the nation. West Java as one of the sharia-tourist destinations has rich tourism potential that can be developed with the values of Islamic sharia. Among these attractions are the Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga, Tasikmalaya. The tourism potentials that exist in these both locations are tourism of nature, local traditions, pilgrimage tourism, traditional art, and historical tours. However, initial observations that researcher did, indicated these potentials did not yet discover optimally. The apropriate strategies are needed to develope the sharia tourism in these both Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga.
This research will formulate the strategy of sharia-based tourism development in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga. The goal is to identify the potential of tourism there, analyzing internal and external environment, and determine the development strategy of both traditional village as a sharia tourist attraction. The data in this study were obtained through the method of participant observation, in-depth interviews and documentation. This study is explorative; formulate programs based on internal conditions and external conditions in both sites. The results showed that the strength of Sharia tour in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga include the value of the local community and religious ritual, pilgrimage tourism, unique architecture, natural beauty that lies in the mountainous region, good roads, easy access (to Kampung Naga), and the strategic position. While the weakness of Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga include lack of hygiene and environmental sustainability, lack of availability of tourist transport (to Kampung Dukuh), the lack of tourism facilities, the lack of parking space, still lack of toilet facilities for public, unavaillable manager of the attraction, unmaximum promotional efforts, and the unavailability of Tourist Information Center.
Based on the analysis of these strengths and weaknesses, I formulate four development strategies that can be applied, namely product development strategy, promotion strategy development, sustainable tourism strategy, and the strategy of human resource development (HRD) based on the values of the Islamic Sharia.
Keywords: strategy development, Sharia Tourism, Kampung Dukuh, and Kampung Naga.
Undang-undang No. 10 Year 2009 on Kepariwisataan, Article 5, point a, mentions that "Kepariwisataan diselenggarakan dengan prinsip menjunjung tinggi norma agama dan nilai budaya sebagai pengejawantahan dari konsep hidup dalam keseimbangan hubungan antara manusia dan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, hubungan antara manusia dan sesama manusia, dan hubungan antara manusia dan lingkungan. According to the law above, the basic of tourism development in Indonesian should be based on religious values and customs in a certain area designated as a tourist destination. Indonesia as a country with a majority Muslim population has a wealth of traditions and customs that can not be separated from religion. So the traditions and cultures that exist in today's society is a manifestation of religion or belief. From this phenomenon, tourism in the form of culture in Indonesia generally is part of the religion of Islam which has become the pride of the people of Indonesia. So if the culture will become a tourist attraction then inevitably have to consider the religious community.
Rich tradition, culture, religion and customs of Indonesia's Muslim population are what lie behind the emergence of Sharia Tourism Programme by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia through the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy (Kemenparekraf)). The main reason for the development of this program is due to the increased interest in the local and international community to tour the Islamic sharia. Kemenparekraf noted that arrivals of Muslim travelers to Indonesia reached 1,270,437 people per year; they came from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Malaysia, and Singapore. As well as other countries in the world, product and tourism services with Islamic values is attractive to Muslim travelers. The population is reached to 1.8 billion or 28% of the total world population.
Muslim tourists contribute approximately U.S. $ 126 billion in 2011, and it is estimated by the year 2020 they would spend U.S. $ 192 billion for their travel needs. This amount represents 13.4% of the global tourist spending, and will continue to increase in the next year. In the next eight years is projected to grow at 4.8% per year, while the global tourist is projected to grow 3.8%. Currently 50% of the Muslim population in the world at 1.8 billion and is in less than 25 years of age. This means they are in the productive age and have great potential for foreign tourists traveling.
Based on the fact that the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy has established at least nine tourist destinations which currently has the potential to be promoted as a destination for Sharia Tourism such as West Sumatra, Riau, Lampung, Banten, Jakarta, West Java, East Java, Makassar, and Lombok. West Java is one of the provinces of Sharia Travel destinations in Indonesia. It is based on the fact that people in West Java are Muslim majority and has a rich culture that can become a leading tourist attraction. Tourism potential in West Java can be seen in the following table:
This table shows that the tourism potential is dominated by West Java, such as Bandung, Bogor, and Sukabumi, while the potential of cultural tourism is dominated by Bandung, Purwakarta, and West Bandung. In the table "Special Destinations" Purwakarta dominates then Bogor, and Sukabumi, along Sumedang and Ciamis. This table also shows that the potential for tourism in Tasikmalaya and Garut was ranked lower down, while the both districts have historical tour and unique cultural attractions such as in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga that could be developed into a destination of Sharia tourism.
Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga are two of the traditional village that became cultural tourist destination in West Java. Both of these villages have its own uniqueness because people still carry out strict customs they inherited from their ancestors. The whole community of Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga are Muslim so their customs and rituals closely associated with the Islamic faith. Tourist attraction in the Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga is the tradition, culture and religion, which is still preserved by the society. Some objects of interest for tourists are the traditional home architecture, settlement patterns, religious and cultural rituals ancestor who is still held at certain times. Based on the uniqueness of Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga have been established by the Tourism Department of West Java Province as a cultural tourism destination in West Java, in addition to other indigenous villages namely Kampung Kuta in Ciamis, Kampung Pulo in Garut, Kampung Mahmud in Bandung, Kampung Urug in Bogor, Kampung Banceu in Subang, Kampung Cigugur in Kuningan and several other indigenous villages.
This research will formulate the development strategies based in Sharia tourism potential in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga. The goal is to identify the Sharia tourism potential on Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga, analyze internal and external environment, and determine the development strategy of both the traditional village as a tourist attraction sharia. The data in this study were obtained through the method of participant observation, in-depth interviews and documentation. This study is explorative; formulate programs based on internal conditions and external conditions in both sites. The analysis used is the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) to see the opportunities and challenges of Sharia tourism development in both sites.
B. Geographical Conditions Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga
1. Kampung Dukuh
Kampung Dukuh is administratively belongs to the Ciroyom Village area, the expansion of the village Cijambe, District Cikelet, Garut regency of West Java Province. Kampung Dukuh entered into the region RT 01, 02, and 03 RW 06, and Barujaya hamlet. Geographically this village located at an altitude of 390 m above the sea level, with an average temperature of 26 Celcius degrees, while the astronomical location is on the line 7 - 8 degrees latitude and 7 - 108 degrees of east longitude. The distance from the provincial capital of West Java, is about 167 KM. and the distance from the capital city of Garut district is about 102 KM. Meanwhile the distance from the capital city and District is about 6 KM. The condition of road to Kampung Dukuh is clay, steep road with stones, and not paved. The trip to the Kampung Dukuh can be achieved by using public transportations, private car, and then walking about 250 meters away from the last place car stops.
The wide of Kampung Dukuh is approximately 1.5 hectares. With this type of settlement consisting of a few houses in groups, arranged in a terraced house on the slope, and from the level of it, there is a row of houses stretching from West to East. Kampung Dukuh area is divided into some regions such as Inner Dukuh (Dukuh Lebeut), Outer Dukuh (Dukuh Luar), and Karomah land (the tomb of Sheikh Abdul Djalil and his followers). There is land for land reserves enabled housing, such as Taneh Awisan Sumedang, Sukapura, and Arab. Adnimistratif boundaries of Kampung Dukuh are:
a. North of the village adjacent to the village of Palasari Karangsari.
b. South side adjacent to the village of Cibalagung Cijambe,
c. East of the northern part of the village adjacent to the village Nangela Karangsari.
d. East of the southern part of the village bordering the river Cipasarangan Tipar Cikelet village.
e. Bordering the west side of the village of Kampung Ciawi Ciroyom.
Overall tribal area of approximately is 4684.23 Ha. It is approximately 4559.48 (97.3%) is agricultural land, plantations and forests. While the remaining approximately 124.75 Ha. (2.7%) an area used as residential, rural facilities, schools, offices, sports venues, cemeteries, places of worship and barren land.
2. Kampung Naga
Kampung Naga is administratively located in the area of RT 01 RW 01 Neglasari village, Tasikmalaya district of West Java Province. Total area is 10 hectares area, which consists of a protected forest area and forest area is about 3.5 ha, land for settlement is ± 1.5 ha and for gardens and agriculture is ± 5 Ha. Kampung Naga position by GPS measurements lies in 7o21'30"S and 107o59'30"E. The Geographical conditions of the region in the form of a valley surrounded by hills, the soil surface in the western part is a condition that has the contour of the land is higher than the ground surface in the eastern part. Sundanese people call underfoot conditions as the terms Taneuh Bahe ngetan (underfoot conditions have more sloping contour to the east). Based on trust, an area that has a slope of the land as it is an ideal place for both residential and agricultural land. Rationally, such a belief is understandable; because the area has a slope of land to the east will get morning sun more. It thus allows the occupants are healthier because of the influence of ultraviolet light in the morning adequate. Kampung Naga has boundaries as follows: in the east after the pool, shower, toilet, and cattle sheds are Ciwulan River, and on the opposite elongated hills, there is a mention of this hill as Bukit Naga. In the rice fields and the south entrance to Kampung Naga, in the west are hills such as Leuweung Karamat, while in the north is a rice field near the riverside of Ciwulan River.
C. Potentcies of Tourism in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga
1. Potentcies of Tourism in Kampung DukuhKampung Dukuh is a traditional village with a rich Sharia-based tourism potential that could be developed as a destination for domestic and foreign tourists. Architecture of the Bale house, and the mosque became the central of tourist destinations in the Kampung Dukuh. It is very attractive for tourists who want to know more about the architecture of ancient Sunda. Additionally settlement patterns and land use are also interesting to be a mainstay tourist of Kampung Dukuh. Furthermore a tomb of Shaykh Abdul Jalil who made as a place for pilgrims to be Sufi, prayed and begged karomah is religious tourism destination that has not been developed in to maximal. Arts, traditions, and culture of Kampung Dukuh are very diverse and exotic. Art that currently exist such as Terbang Seja’, Barjanji, Addeba’, Manakiban, Tutunggulan (Tabuhan Lisung/ place to pound rice) using Halu (tool for pounding rice) is done by three people or more. Terbang is also called Kempring or Gembring is a kind of large-sized tambourine. One group of Terbang Seja 'consists of four flew, hit with a monotonous rhythm of the song that contains the following praise to Allah Almighty, upon His greatness or the praise of the glory of the Prophet
 The Aouthor is a lecturer at Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Al-Hidayah Bogor and Students Doctoral Program at Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
 Undang-undang No. 10 Year 2009 on Tourism, Article 5, point a.
 http://bps.go.id/download_file/Penduduk_Indonesia_menurut_desa_SP2010.pdf accessed on July 6, 2013.
 The author using the term "Islamic Tourism" than "Islamic Tourism" refers to the standard term used by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, Republic of Indonesia, Islamic Tourism Program.
 http://www.budpar.go.id/asp/detil.asp?c=16&id=2042 accessed on July 6, 2013.
 Newsletter “Pariwisata Indonesia” Edisi 37 Januari 2013, Direktorat Jenderal Pemasaran Pariwisata Kementerian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif Republik Indonesia.
 Interview with Mama Uluk as Chairman of the Indigenous Kampung Dukuh and Mr Ade Suherlin as Kuncen Kampung Naga in June 2013
 Village Profile Ciroyom source Cikelet district, Garut regency of West Java province in 2012.
 Interview with Mama Uluk as chairman of the Indigenous Kampung Dukuh in January 2013 and matched by village land records Ciroyom.
 Tanah Karomah according to public trust lands Hamlet Village is a blessing that has been around the tomb of Shaykh Abdul Jalil Kampung Dukuh.
 Taneh Awisan the land being inheritance of the Kingdom Sumedang as a place to build the house for the Kampung Dukuh.
 Ismet Belgawan Harun etc, Arsitektur Rumah dan Permukiman Tradisional di Jawa Barat. Hasil Pengamatan dan Dokumentasi. Bandung: Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Jawa Barat, Year 2011, page 89.
 Didik Wihardi dkk, Sistem Konversi Hak Atas Tanah Adat Kampung Naga, (Bandung: Sosioteknologi Jurnal Edition of 20 Year 9, Agustus 2010.
 Her Suganda, Kampung Naga Mempertahankan Tradisi, (Bandung: PT. Kiblat Buku Utama. 2005), page.19
 Elis Suryani and Anton Charliyan, Menguak Tabir Kampung Naga, (Tasikmalaya: Danan Jaya. 2010), page. 3
 Until these studies are completed the visitors who come to the Kampung Dukuh received directly by Kuncen and stay in the bale specifically provided for the guests (pilgrims).