The Strategy of Islamic Tourism Development in West Java
(Study at Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga)
By: Abdurrahman MBP
B. Geographical Conditions Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga
1. Kampung Dukuh
Kampung Dukuh is administratively belongs to the Ciroyom Village area, the expansion of the village Cijambe, District Cikelet, Garut regency of West Java Province. Kampung Dukuh entered into the region RT 01, 02, and 03 RW 06, and Barujaya hamlet. Geographically this village located at an altitude of 390 m above the sea level, with an average temperature of 26 Celcius degrees, while the astronomical location is on the line 7 - 8 degrees latitude and 7 - 108 degrees of east longitude. The distance from the provincial capital of West Java, is about 167 KM. and the distance from the capital city of Garut district is about 102 KM. Meanwhile the distance from the capital city and District is about 6 KM. The condition of road to Kampung Dukuh is clay, steep road with stones, and not paved. The trip to the Kampung Dukuh can be achieved by using public transportations, private car, and then walking about 250 meters away from the last place car stops.
The wide of Kampung Dukuh is approximately 1.5 hectares. With this type of settlement consisting of a few houses in groups, arranged in a terraced house on the slope, and from the level of it, there is a row of houses stretching from West to East. Kampung Dukuh area is divided into some regions such as Inner Dukuh (Dukuh Lebeut), Outer Dukuh (Dukuh Luar), and Karomah land (the tomb of Sheikh Abdul Djalil and his followers). There is land for land reserves enabled housing, such as Taneh Awisan Sumedang, Sukapura, and Arab. Adnimistratif boundaries of Kampung Dukuh are:
a. North of the village adjacent to the village of Palasari Karangsari.
b. South side adjacent to the village of Cibalagung Cijambe,
c. East of the northern part of the village adjacent to the village Nangela Karangsari.
d. East of the southern part of the village bordering the river Cipasarangan Tipar Cikelet village.
e. Bordering the west side of the village of Kampung Ciawi Ciroyom.
Overall tribal area of approximately is 4684.23 Ha. It is approximately 4559.48 (97.3%) is agricultural land, plantations and forests. While the remaining approximately 124.75 Ha. (2.7%) an area used as residential, rural facilities, schools, offices, sports venues, cemeteries, places of worship and barren land.
2. Kampung Naga
Kampung Naga is administratively located in the area of RT 01 RW 01 Neglasari village, Tasikmalaya district of West Java Province. Total area is 10 hectares area, which consists of a protected forest area and forest area is about 3.5 ha, land for settlement is ± 1.5 ha and for gardens and agriculture is ± 5 Ha. Kampung Naga position by GPS measurements lies in 7o21'30"S and 107o59'30"E. The Geographical conditions of the region in the form of a valley surrounded by hills, the soil surface in the western part is a condition that has the contour of the land is higher than the ground surface in the eastern part. Sundanese people call underfoot conditions as the terms Taneuh Bahe ngetan (underfoot conditions have more sloping contour to the east). Based on trust, an area that has a slope of the land as it is an ideal place for both residential and agricultural land. Rationally, such a belief is understandable; because the area has a slope of land to the east will get morning sun more. It thus allows the occupants are healthier because of the influence of ultraviolet light in the morning adequate. Kampung Naga has boundaries as follows: in the east after the pool, shower, toilet, and cattle sheds are Ciwulan River, and on the opposite elongated hills, there is a mention of this hill as Bukit Naga. In the rice fields and the south entrance to Kampung Naga, in the west are hills such as Leuweung Karamat, while in the north is a rice field near the riverside of Ciwulan River.
C. Potentcies of Tourism in Kampung Dukuh and Kampung Naga
1. Potentcies of Tourism in Kampung Dukuh
Kampung Dukuh is a traditional village with a rich Sharia-based tourism potential that could be developed as a destination for domestic and foreign tourists. Architecture of the Bale house, and the mosque became the central of tourist destinations in the Kampung Dukuh. It is very attractive for tourists who want to know more about the architecture of ancient Sunda. Additionally settlement patterns and land use are also interesting to be a mainstay tourist of Kampung Dukuh. Furthermore a tomb of Shaykh Abdul Jalil who made as a place for pilgrims to be Sufi, prayed and begged karomah is religious tourism destination that has not been developed in to maximal. Arts, traditions, and culture of Kampung Dukuh are very diverse and exotic. Art that currently exist such as Terbang Seja’, Barjanji, Addeba’, Manakiban, Tutunggulan (Tabuhan Lisung/ place to pound rice) using Halu (tool for pounding rice) is done by three people or more. Terbang is also called Kempring or Gembring is a kind of large-sized tambourine. One group of Terbang Seja 'consists of four flew, hit with a monotonous rhythm of the song that contains the following praise to Allah Almighty, upon His greatness or the praise of the glory of the Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him. As an interlude, performed the atractions that demonstrate various science of strongs (powerfull) as well as Debus of Banten, but with a much simpler implementation as slashing with a dagger to whole body (Ngesrek), Mamacanan, which carry a stick (halu; timber commonly used for pounding rice) with six or more people are in the middle there is a bond handkerchief, until it falls unpowerfuly to bear the stick. Next is Sulap, climbing with a high speed as well as tigers or other.
Barjanji or Addeba, is reading the history of the Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him from birth until death. That history of the prophet is written in a book in form of poem as stanza poem and performed in accordance with, such as Sinom, Kidung, and Asmarandana. The implementation of Addeba is'usually carried out after Maghrib prayer or if anything to do with public needs (Tasyakuran) with its implementation is after praying Isya, the length is depending on which has the intention or consent reader a history of several men, including the village elders also Kuncen and Habib. Manakiban is reading the biography of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (very well known Muslim missionaries). Usually conducted in Mulud and certain times specified by the chieftain.
In addition to the art, some traditions are still preserved to this day in Kampung Dukuh such as the Moros Ceremony, which is one manifestation of Kampung Dukuh communities by providing agricultural products to the government ahead of the Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. In addition, there is also a Ngahatur Tuang ritual. This activity is performed by Kampung Dukuh community or visitors from outside if they have certain desires as smooth business, marriage, mate, by providing foodstuffs such as salt, eggs, coconut, goat or other items according to their ability. Next is Nyangggakeun tradition, it is the delivery of the majority of agricultural activities to Kuncen to be blessed. According to their beliefs, rice should not be eaten before Nyanggakeun activities.
There is also Tilu Waktos ceremony, this ritual is only performed by Kuncen, bringing food into Bumi Alit or Bumi Leubet for Tawasul. Kuncen brings some food to Bumi Alit and prayed, performed during the festival of 1 Syawal, 10 Rayagung, 12 Maulid, and 10th of Muharram. Then there are also rituals Manuja, the delivery of food crops to Kuncen to be blessed on the feast of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha to be used as material for the next celebration as Mares, it is celebration owned by the village chief and government officials such as Lurah and Camat.
In addition it is also known as Cebor Opat Puluh ceremony, which is forty times the shower with the water spray from the shower and is mixed with water that has been given special prayers at a public bath. Then Jaroh ceremony which is a form of religious activity pilgrimage to the tomb of Sheikh Abdul Jalil earlier but must do Cebor Opat Puluh shower and ablutions and take off all jewelry and wear clothing that is not patterned. Shalawatan ceremony conducted on Friday at Kuncen`s house. Shalawatan is implemented as 4444 that calculated using Sebelasan stone, and performed every 11 of months in the calculation of Islam by reading Marekah Terbang Gembrung. Gembrung Terbang activity was done on 12 Maulud and performed by parents of Kampung Dukuh. In addition, there are some great days in the Kampung Dukuhbas 1 Syawal, 10 Rayagung, 12 Maulid, and 10th of Muharram. While the important days including Saturday (pilgrimage implementation), Rebo Wekasan (last day of Sapar where all sources of water for public, which is given an amulet used as repellent reinforcements, and is usually required to shower). And 14 Maulud is believed as a good day to test and seek knowledge for teachers to do Cebor Opat Puluh. Some of these potentials have not been developed as a sharia tourist attraction, so visitors to this village is still limited for pilgrimage and seek blessing of the traditional leaders and the Tomb of Sheikh Abdul Jalil only. In fact, if the traditions developed into a sharia tourist attraction it would be demanded by the tourists.
2. Potentcies of Tourism in Kampung Naga
Today Kampung Naga has become a leading tourist attraction for Tasikmalaya and West Java. The visitors are not only from within the country but also many foreign tourists. The main potential of Kampung Naga is home architecture and settlement patterns. Houses in Kampung Naga use natural materials such as wood and bamboo. The roof uses Injuk and leaves of Tepus that has its own peculiarities. The houses in Kampung Naga are in line facing to north and south facing each other. The pattern of designation is based on the mythology of holy area Tritangtu, is a shrine sacred and clean area for residential gross area for residents and livestock barns, Saung Lisung pond, and toilets.
Traditions that exist in Kampung Naga are very much consists of art, celebration, ritual and pilgrimage. Art in Kampung Naga is Terbang Gembrung and Terbang Sejak. Terbang Gembrung is a type of larger tambourine. It is only played to accompany the takbir and prayers during the evening feast Idhul Fitr, Idhul Adha, and Muludan. These instruments should not be played in addition to those moments. Meanwhile Terbang Sejak is smaller tambourine and can be played anytime and anywhere, and to accompany the various prayers, religious songs, and other popular songs. Kampung Naga tradition in the form of ritual is a celebration of Hajat Sasih once every two months. This is the core of the ritual pilgrimage to the tomb of the ancestors; Sembah Dalem Eyang Singaparana with previous bathing in the river and Abdas in Ciwulan River. The event was concluded with Ngariung and eating together in the mosque. Meanwhile the women residents of Kampung Naga bring Tumpeng to be prayed in the mosque and then taken home to be eaten along with other family members. The implementation of this celebration has been set since the first time that the:
a. Month of Muharram (Muharram) on 1, 2 or 3
b. Maulud month (Rabiul Awal) on December 12, 13, or 14
c. Months of Jumada al-End on December 14, 15, or 16
d. Rewah month (Sha'ban) on December 26, 27, or 28
e. Shawwal (Shawwal) on December 1, 2, or 3.
f. Rayagung month (Dzulkaidah) on June 10, 11 or 12.
There is also Ngaruwat Lembur event in Muharram. It is a plea to God that all people are given a good life in the coming year. At this event held cutting goats and chickens as a symbol of the sacrifice of Kampung Naga community to the Creator al-Mighty. In Mulud there is not only Hajat Sasih but also Mapag Sasih Mulud event performed to welcome Maulud months and Mileuleuyenken Sasih Mulud offs Maulud month. Still in Mulud they do Ngawilah; changing Kandang Jaga all together the whole community of Kampung Naga. Based on observations, only Hajat Sasih celebration in Kampung Naga is used as a tourist attraction and exposed to the public, but if every ritual activity and certain moments is optimized, they could become a sharia tourist attraction that appeal to tourists both domestic and foreign.
 Village Profile Ciroyom source Cikelet district, Garut regency of West Java province in 2012.
 Interview with Mama Uluk as chairman of the Indigenous Kampung Dukuh in January 2013 and matched by village land records Ciroyom.
 Tanah Karomah according to public trust lands Hamlet Village is a blessing that has been around the tomb of Shaykh Abdul Jalil Kampung Dukuh.
 Taneh Awisan the land being inheritance of the Kingdom Sumedang as a place to build the house for the Kampung Dukuh.
 Ismet Belgawan Harun etc, Arsitektur Rumah dan Permukiman Tradisional di Jawa Barat. Hasil Pengamatan dan Dokumentasi. Bandung: Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Jawa Barat, Year 2011, page 89.
 Didik Wihardi dkk, Sistem Konversi Hak Atas Tanah Adat Kampung Naga, (Bandung: Sosioteknologi Jurnal Edition of 20 Year 9, Agustus 2010.
 Her Suganda, Kampung Naga Mempertahankan Tradisi, (Bandung: PT. Kiblat Buku Utama. 2005), page.19
 Elis Suryani and Anton Charliyan, Menguak Tabir Kampung Naga, (Tasikmalaya: Danan Jaya. 2010), page. 3
 Until these studies are completed the visitors who come to the Kampung Dukuh received directly by Kuncen and stay in the bale specifically provided for the guests (pilgrims).
 Interview with Kang Yayan Kampung Dukuh residents and players flew historian 'and the other arts in January 2013.
 Interview with indigenous leader Kang Sholaha Kampung Dukuh in June 2013
 Interview with indigenous leader Kang Yayan Kampung Dukuh in June 2013.
 Kampung Naga designated as a tourist attraction with Peraturan Daerah Nomor 2 Tahun 2005 about Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kabupaten Tasikmalaya
 Interview with Mr. Ade Suherlin Kuncen as Kampung Naga in February 2013.
 Writers get a chance to watch the activities at the event beating terbang gembrung on takbiran and Muludan in 2012.
 Interview with Mr Tatang Sutisna of Kampung Naga on March 2013
 Interview with Mr. Punduh Ma'un as Indigenous in Kampung Naga in February 2013 at his home.